Quadros, Ronice M. de & Josep Quer. 2008. Back to Back(wards) and moving on: On agreement, auxiliaries and verb classes. In Ronice M. de Quadros (d.), Sign Languages: Spinning and unraveling the past, present and future. TISLR9, forty-five papers and three posters from the 9th century. Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil, December 2006. Petrópolis/RJ, Brazil: Editora Arara Azul. Other phenomena beyond spatial modification have also been proposed as correspondence in sign languages. For example, Neidle et al. (including Bahan, 1996; Lee et al., 1997; Neidle et al. 2000), Thompson (2006) and Thompson et al.

(2006; 2009) argue that timing is a non-manual grammatical marker of VERB CORRESPONDENCE in ASL. The general assertion is that signers regularly turn their attention to the location associated with object arguments when generating display verbs, and that this is a non-manual instantiation of matching characteristics. For Neidle and colleagues, the gaze is used as a grammatical marker for compliance with all types of verbs; Thompson and his colleagues argue that research is a grammatical marker of correspondence only for matchbanks. In summary, our proposal to construct index verbs has advantages over rule-based models, as it does not require additional mechanisms to explain why only a subset of verbal characters indicate verbs and why there are differences in how directionality is achieved in the system (both for individual verbs and for verb classes, such as regular verbs and upside down. 5Cysouw (2011) refers to Corbett`s notion of such covariance as correspondence/concordance to distinguish it from chord/inflection, in which the latter is limited only to subject-verb covariance. Thompson, Robin, Karen Emmorey and Robert Kluender. 2009. Learning to Look: The Acquisition of Gaze Agreement in the Production of ASL Verbs. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 12(4). 393-409.

DOI: doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990277 Meir, Irit. 2002. An Intermodal Perspective on Verb Matching. Natural Language and Language Theory 20(2). 413–50. DOI: doi.org/10.1023/A:1015041113514 However, some scholars object to the analysis of the specification of verbal signs as a marker of the person`s correspondence with verb arguments (Liddell 2003; Schembri and Johnston, 2007). It was Liddell (1995) who first suggested that the variation in the directionality of such characters does not mark a correspondence with a competing noun phrase, but works by integrating a pointing gesture into the shape of the sign. A pointing gesture is defined by Kita (2003b:1) as « a communicative body movement that projects a vector from a part of the body. » This vector specifies a specific physically existing presenter or a location associated with an absent person. In the case of ad verbs, the articulators involved in a particular verb character are directed to or from locations in the room around the signer. Thus, according to Liddell, each movement of the hand(s) in a sign towards such a place projects a vector and signals an association with the speaker in the same way as a pointing gesture by a non-signatory (cf. Kendon 2004). Therefore, the main function of this directionality seems to be reference tracking (Fenlon et al.

2018). Liddell`s (2003) analysis, in which he describes the display of verbs as a fusion of morphemic and gestural elements, is based on Langacker`s (1987; 1991) concept of cognitive grammar, which sees language, signs, and gesture as part of a broader notion of « language » (cf. Ferrara & Hodge 2018). Since that time, the number of scientists who have moved away from match analysis has increased, although many alternative accounts (e.B. Lillo-Martin & Meier 2011; Wilbur, 2013; Wilcox & Occhino 2016) do not accept the analysis of the gestures pointed out in Liddell`s proposal. .