Each player validates the change by applying the Delta to their own state of play and comparing the hashes of the game state. Data structures such as stack, tail, etc., can only resolve the consensus between two processes. Why can`t these objects resolve the consensus between more processes? An effective way to prove this is to use bivalence. Suppose the edit is binary, a state is bivalent if both outputs are possible, and if the output is only 0/1, the state is called 0-valent/1-valent. The basic idea is to establish a contradiction by performing certain operations to obtain a state that is both 0-valent and 1-valent. Leslie Lamport`s Paxos consensus algorithm and its variants like Raft are widely used in cloud and distributed computing systems. .