The alliance of small island states and least developed countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change, has taken the initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement. [33] However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events. Outside the EU, the Bank intends to support access to energy by developing low-carbon, efficient and reliable energy systems. The Bank`s energy lending volume represents only a small fraction of the investment needed outside the EU. In order to finance projects that strengthen countries` national contributions (PNN) under the Paris Agreement, the Bank will support projects in sub-Saharan Africa and energy transition in other regions, including Asia and Latin America. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that belong exclusively to the other[71] and there was concern that there was a disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact. [72] However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement[60] and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States. [72] How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker[95] and the climate clock). Fourth, the mechanism calls for a review of the implementation of NDPs based on the results of political oversight [40]. Countries that implement their NDCs and incure related costs will want to ensure that other countries meet their commitments to avoid overpayment under the climate finance mechanism.

In the absence of an international body with surveillance and sanctions capacity, increasing incentives for NPNPs will be essential to achieving a significant reduction in emissions. Figures 2 b and d show the evolution of the contribution to climate finance when the dynamics for both areas are taken into account. Blue-coloured countries benefit from the inclusion of dynamic elements that suffer from countries in red. Under Cancun, 28 countries and 21 countries benefit from the integration of dynamic elements (83 and 76 respectively within the scope of Paris).